question on quality of milk

In May 2018, FSSAI started the survey. Its interim report was released on November 13. The survey conducted 6432 samples from all over the country was checked. During the survey, 13 types of adulterants were examined in

  • In May 2018, FSSAI started the survey. Its interim report was released on November 13. The survey conducted 6432 samples from all over the country was checked.
  • During the survey, 13 types of adulterants were examined in milk, including vegetable oil, detergent, glucose, urea and ammonium sulphate.
  • It was found in the survey that the amount of fat and solid knit fat (SNF) in milk is not in accordance with standard.
  • India produces around 14.68 million liters of milk per day and consumption of per capita milk in the country is about 480 gm.

How true is the quality of milk used by us?

  • In the survey, 4 of quality, adulterant 12 and 4 parameters for contaminated substances were tested and 93 antibiotics residues, 18 pesticides residues, Aflatoxin M1 and ammonium sulphate were tested.
  • According to the survey, less than 10 percent of the milk samples have found harmful substances which make the consumption of milk unsafe.
  • In all these cases, poor quality of milk, irresponsible use of antibiotics and poor agricultural practices are considered to be the leading cause of milk contamination.
  • FSSAI started working in 2011, a survey was conducted at that time and there were many shortcomings across the country.
  • In this survey, those deficiencies have been removed; both of them have been taken into account in the quality and safety, their qualitative analysis has also been done which was not done in its previous survey.
  • Only 9.9 percent of the samples have been found unsafe, whereas only 12 samples have been found to be adulterated.
  • There is no problem related to safety in the 39 percent sample, but the problem of non-compliance has been found. The fat and SNF amount has not been found according to the standard.
  • Remnants of insecticides have been found in 1.2 percent sample. The quantity of aflatoxin which comes in milk from animal feed, has been found in 5.7 percent which is a matter of concern.
  • Ammonium sulphate has been found in some samples. The information from where it came from has not been properly reported. This can be due to the dissolving of water by the use of urea or fertilizers and by drinking the same water by the animal, or it can also be mixed in milk.

Better Processed Milk From Open Milk

  • Compared to open milk, the quality of packaged or processed milk can be considered better as the process is fully implemented.
  • There are milk centers in rural areas where milk is collected. Many tests of this milk are done. When adulteration is found in milk, it is returned. If accidentally reached the milk plant, then it is also returned from there.
  • The milk price is determined on the basis of the fat and solid non fat (milk and other nutrients present in milk in addition to fat and water) present in milk available from milk producers and farmers. Therefore they avoid adulteration in milk. 
    ยท Chilling milk is brought to the plant through insulated tankers. The milk processing is done in the plant.
  • There are many types of milk tests. Despite this, the shopkeeper who sells milk does not store milk properly, then action is taken to withdraw his sale rights. This is the reason that packaged milk is better than open milk.

Due to impurity of milk

  • The processing unit of any milk processing unit or agri product is obtained from the material farmers. Testing is done on the basis of standards to give final product.
  • The quality of the material obtained from the organized sector is measured, there are some parameters to check that are included in the checking process and according to that the kit is also used because milk processing is the most from this area.
  • The material of milk also comes from the unorganized sector. The problem of quality arises from this area because the farmers sell their profits and losses to the R-Material companies. He takes into account the lowest points of quality and testing.
  • The farmers of the unorganized sector can not provide quality raw material, there is no fault in the farmer as the quality of the material is based on quality feed and livestock of livestock.
  • Only the farmer can see that his livestock can not get bad fodder and water. Heavy metal water in the milk comes due to contamination, the farmer is not able to overcome this problem.
  • The milk produced by a poor farmer goes to the supplier and the supplier collects all the milk from the milk processing unit and requires 24 to 48 hours of time. At the same time, he does not have the same facilities as this, so that he can keep the milk at reasonable temperature to avoid getting spoiled.
  • For this, it adds some substances in the milk like Hydrogen Peroxide, Formaldehyde so that milk is not deteriorated.

Impact of milk adulteration on body

  • The Indian Council of Medical Research recently said in its report that adulteration in milk has a dangerous effect on health.
  • Milk is a mixture of many substances and its regular consumption can lead to health problems. The effects of adulterated foods on milk and their health are as follows:

1. Oxytocin injection

  • This hormone injection is used to increase milk capacity in cows and buffaloes. It is used throughout India.
  • Low amount of oxytocin in milk can also cause hormonal imbalance in people. It can cause kidney disease, lack of memory, cardiovascular diseases, etc.

2. Formin (formaldehyde)

  • Formalin is a preservative and disinfectant, which is mainly used to preserve dead bodies and other biological samples. But this chemical is currently being used to increase the deterioration of milk.
  • To save the cost of refrigeration, the dairy farmer puts some of its drops in milk. But this action puts the health of milk consumers in jeopardy. Some of its side effects include cancer, skin diseases, eye diseases, ulcers such as gastrointestinal disease and kidney related problems.

3. Hydrogen Peroxide

  • Hydrogen Peroxide works similarly to Formin. It is also used to protect milk from spoiling.
  • Consumption of low amounts of hydrogen peroxide from regular basis can also lead to many health problems such as cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal disease and poor digestive tract.

4. Detergent

  • If you think that white milk with foam is its identity, then you are wrong. This effect can be seen by putting detergent in milk.
  • Detergent makes the milk white and thicker, which attracts consumers. But this can cause many long-term health problems such as gastrointestinal disease and kidney related problems.

What needs to be done?

  • To prevent adulteration in milk, the Supreme Court has given suggestions from time to time which are very important.
  • He has instructed the central government to make strict provision in the case of adulteration. Some states have amended the IPC and provided punishment for life imprisonment in this case.
  • The Bench headed by former Chief Justice TS Thakur also said that online mechanism should be arranged to make a complaint so that anyone can complain about adulteration.
  • Besides increasing the number of food labs, deployment of investigating officers should also be ensured. 
  • Many states have enacted laws for this, but the proper number of food inspectors has not been appointed. There is also a huge shortage of food labs.
  • Even where there are food labs, they do not have employees working in them. It takes six to six months for each report to arrive. Its advantage raises sophistication
  • India is a vegetarian country and milk is considered to be the most comprehensive source of protein. In the last few years, India has come first in the world in terms of milk production.
  • Milk is collected from almost two lakh villages every day in the country and the dairy industry is continuously strengthening. It needs to be systematic and to better regulate this area. 
  • A robust testing mechanism should be made to ensure the quality of milk. 


In 2011, 70 percent samples of samples collected from the country were not found according to the Food Safety and Standards Act 2006. The point of contentment is that at present it has come down to 39 percent i.e., the quality of milk is gradually improving. It is true that adulteration is one of the biggest foods in the fast growing of liver, kidney, heart disease and cancer. There is a need to take effective steps to ensure 100 percent purity of milk which is a nutritious diet from children to old people.