NASA’s space shuttle reached Ultima Thule

Why in the discussion? NASA’s New Horaijns (New Horizons) spacecraft Kuiper belt (Kuiper Belt) at will fly in front of the icy object Ultima Thule (TOO-lee). Ultima Thule is located 1.6 billion kilometers from Pluto and 6.4 billion kilometers from

Why in the discussion?

  • NASA’s New Horaijns (New Horizons) spacecraft Kuiper belt (Kuiper Belt) at will fly in front of the icy object Ultima Thule (TOO-lee).
  • Ultima Thule is located 1.6 billion kilometers from Pluto and 6.4 billion kilometers from Earth.
  • Spacecraft Ultima will travel within 3,500 kilometers of Thule.

Altima Thulla

  • The Kuiper belt object was discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2014.
  • It is officially known as the 2014 MU69 and it has been nicknamed Ultima Thule .
  • Thule means the most distant place beyond the known world.

Importance

  • Ultima Thule will be the most distant object ever seen by a space shuttle.
  • Ultima Thule will collect information about the origins of solar system 4.5 billion years ago. No spaceship has made such a primitive journey. This will help us to understand the origins of our solar system.
  • Mission will also help in extreme study

New Horizons


It is a NASA Space Exploration Vehicle, which was released for the study of outer dwarf planet Pluto of the Solar System. The launch of this vehicle was done on January 19, 2006.


Sources – The Hindu


Why in the discussion?


According to a recent survey conducted in 6 states, despite the increase in the budget for school education by the State Governments, the allocation of funds is not so that to attract permanent educated teachers towards government schools.

Important point

  • This study report is prepared jointly by Child Rights and You (CRY) and The Center for Budget and Governance Accountability (CBGA).
  • During the recommendation period of the 14th Finance Commission, which started in April 2015, it tested the budget for school education in six states, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Maharashtra.

Main points of report

  • It has been found in the study that after the recommendations of the 14th Finance Commission, the overall increase in the revenue of the states has increased.
  • This was the result of 32 to 42 percent increase in the share of states in the divisible pool of central taxes.
  • At the same time, the reduction in central government’s contribution to the states for central schemes in the social sector forced the states to improve their tax revenue collection.
  • This study analyzes whether the availability of additional funds in these six states has been used to prioritize school education.
  • According to the detailed demand of grants and state budget documents, between the years 2015-17 and 2017-18, the total state budget of 3 of these states has seen a net decline in the share of school education.
  • This decline in Bihar was 3.1 percent, Maharashtra was 1 percent and West Bengal recorded 0.9 percent.
  • On the other hand, the size of the school education budget in Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh increased by 0.4 percent, 2.6 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively.
  • In Uttar Pradesh, the school budget has seen an increase of 98.8 percent, while the overall budget increase was 63.3 percent.
  • The school budget of West Bengal increased by 49.4 percent, while its total budget increased 48.2 percent. These facts show that school education has been given priority in these states.
  • At the same time, we find that all six states have registered an increase in the amount of per child and per student expenditure for education between 2014-15 and 2016-17.
  • These six states are struggling with the problem of lack of teachers despite their commitment to school education.
  • By March 2017, 34% seats were vacant from 19 percent of the total teachers at primary level in West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu were in slightly better position with 5.9 percent and 2.6 percent vacant seats, respectively.
  • According to the statistics obtained from District Information System for Education, a serious shortage of subject-specific teachers has been found at the upper primary level, which has been stated as necessary under the Right to Education Act.
  • Looking at the upper primary level, we find that 77% in Maharashtra, 46% in Uttar Pradesh, 40% in West Bengal and 37% in Bihar are lacking subject-specific teachers.
  • More than 1 lakh schools in India are running with the help of only one teacher and in the survey of these 6 states it has come to the attention that the number of such schools is increasing.
  • The lack of teachers is secondary and serious – 20,494 in Bihar, 8,278 in Chhattisgarh and 12,008 teachers in Uttar Pradesh are vacant.